Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study


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Thursday, April 15 to Saturday, April 17, 2010

An examination of the demographic, social, cultural, religious, and political forces that are shaping the emergent American Muslim community. Inter-generational family dynamics, Muslim schools, mosque governance, civil religion in America, advocacy group politics, and voting patters will be examined. So will ethnic, linguistic, national-origin, and sectarian differences among immigrant-origin Muslims, particularly their political implications.

African-American Muslims will also be considered, especially their relations with immigrant-origin Muslims. This course explores political systems and contemporary society in Central Eurasia and devotes special attention to ethnic relations among the various peoples of the region. It belongs culturally to the Islamic world. The region has been impacted by the imperial policies of the Soviet Union and China, the rise of nationalism, and religious radicalism, terrorism, and war.

Reform strategies and models will be discussed. Kathleen Bailey.

The decline of the nation-state in the Middle East

The aim of this course is to introduce the major historical developments, main actors and institutional framework of modern Turkey. It will enable students to understand the complexities of and developments in political life, institutions and processes; as well as socio-economic factors that influence the political system in Turkey. After providing a historical overview, starting from the westernization efforts during the late Ottoman Empire to the founding of modern republic, contemporary issues that have considerable impact on Turkish political life in the last decades will be discussed.

Cigdem Hajipouan Benam. This course examines the domestic, ideological, and strategic dimensions of the troubled relationships between the United States and Iran since the Second World War. After a brief overview of the relationships in the pre-war period, it will focus on the war-time occupation of Iran by the Allied powers and the subsequent onset of the Cold War; Iran's oil nationalization crisis and the CIA-sponsored coup; U.

What is the relationship between philosophy and Islam? Does the divine law Shari'a need to be supplemented with purely rational reflections on the nature and purpose of political life?

Cited by other publications

What is the place of toleration and individual rights in the Islamic legal and philosophic tradition? We will explore these and similar questions by focusing on two particularly fertile periods of Islamic thought: the encounter of Islam with Greek philosophy in the classical period and its encounter with the modern secular west in late modernity. David Di Pasquale. This course examines the role of intellectuals, both religious and secular, in several Middle Eastern countries in analyzing the key problems of their societies, articulating visions for change, supporting or challenging the political status quo, and at times acting directly as agents of social change.

The main themes to be explored in the words of a number of prominent Middle Eastern intellectuals include: the conflict between tradition and modernity; the encounter with the West and the quest for authenticity; secularism, human rights, minority rights, and democracy; and reformist versus radical strategies for political, social, and cultural change. Will Muslims integrate successfully into the American regime?

How do we define success? What does such integration—or lack thereof—tell us about contemporary American political institutions? What challenges does Islam pose for our understanding of the place of religion in America, or in liberal democracies generally? Such questions will be addressed by examining the institutions Muslims in America are building for themselves—for instance, mosques, schools, political advocacy groups. To what extent are these shaped by values and ideas—religious or political? To what extent by overseas actors? To what extent by American social and cultural forces?

Peter Skerry. This course investigates the rise and development of civilization in the Middle East, from the beginning of settled life ca. The course themes examine the political, social, economic, religious, and intellectual underpinnings of the rise, growth, faltering, and downfall of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Canaan, Egypt, Israel, and Carthage, evaluate their contributions to the rise of classical civilization Greece and Rome, and their influence on Western Civilization, monotheistic traditions, and the modern Middle Eastern state-system.

This course is intended for students who have had at least five semesters approximately hours of Arabic study or equivalent. Otherwise, the permission of the instructor is required. Students are introduced to the specialized structure and vocabulary of business Arabic, beginning with the analysis of headlines and telegraphic language and messaging, and continuing into video, radio, film, and web- based content.

They will examine extensive and varied as well as authentic and recent media Arabic materials taken from different Arabic newspapers and media sources such as Al-Hayat, Al- Ahram and Al-Gazeera with a view to introducing them to a variety of stylistic features and terminologies pertaining to the conventional and specialized writing of Arabic business writing. The course is divided into a number of modules organized around topical issues. Atef Ghobrial. Advanced-level work toward a thorough proficiency in all aspects of modern standard Arabic, with an emphasis on composition, syntax, style, and careful translation of advanced texts.

This course is for students who have had prior formal exposure to modern standard Arabic. It is a continuation of Advanced Arabic SL It continues the process of presenting grammatical structures, reinforces techniques for vocabulary building and extends reading skills, speaking and writing at the paragraph level and beyond. The course will emphasize intensive conversational practice and communication in context. Instruction will adopt a communication-based approach: emphasis is placed on the functional use of the language and on communication in context rather than on the conscious learning of grammatical rules.

New vocabulary will be used and applied in class in various new authentic contexts such as by asking questions and engaging in various speech activities that necessitate the use of new vocabulary and structures. However, the course emphasizes the acquisition of grammatical structures by application rather than explanation. It is a study of what constitutes the various parameters of identity: linguistic typologies, religious diversity Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Islam, and Judaism , culture, and social class.

An analysis of the origins of nationalism, the emergence of nation-states, and contemporary nationalism as a source of instability and war in the Balkans will be considered. Mariela Dakova. Through a study of fiction, works of scholarship, folklore, and movies, the course examines the conversion of Christians to Islam in Southeast Europe.

It analyzes the most important cultural, social, and political implications of this change with the goal of identifying the various factors that promote cooperation or conflict among mixed Christian-Muslim communities. A study of the intersection of gender, ethnicity, and ideology in the Russian Revolution, the World Wars in Eastern Europe, and the recent Yugoslav wars.

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In World War I women confronted their duties to nation against the backdrop of an on-going struggle for equality. More recently in former Yugoslavia, women, particularly Bosnian Muslim women, flouted tradition in a different way—by organizing and fighting for peace. Cynthia Simmons. Yet, the authors' concerns often also resonate with what we can identify as "universal" issues of the twentieth century. A broad-based overview of the role of language choice plays in the construction of national and cultural identity in the Middle East.

We will examine the role of Modern Standard Arabid or Fus-ha in the elaboration of Arab Nationalism, and the role of local dialects in the conceptualization of competing national identities and territorial nationalisms. In particular, and in addition to Arab Nationalism and Zionism, we will examine the ideas of Greater Syria, the Egyptian Pharaonic idea, Lebanonism, Mesopotamianism, and the Canaanite movement in Israel.

Gottfried Hensel in his Synopsis Universae Philologiae published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts. The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism , and in the s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda , so that it was only in the s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.

A study on the genetic history of Europe found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east northern Europe to the Balkans , with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques and Sami from other European populations.

Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life.

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By , 39 member states had signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France. Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have migrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others arrived more recently, many in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish empires.

Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents , the descendants of Shem peopling Asia and those of Ham peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as " Japhetites " is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic".

In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum 9th century introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period as it was remembered in early medieval historiography as follows,. The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".

Bochmann includes: [49]. Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary , scientific , political , artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon.

Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last years. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , [58] The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science. Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a survey, Islam has some tradition in the Balkans and the Caucasus due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries, as well as earlier though discontinued long-term presence in much of Iberia as well as Sicily.

Muslims account for the majority of the populations in Albania , Azerbaijan , Kosovo , Northern Cyprus controlled by Turks , and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe. Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens , Avars , Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority.

The Jewish population of Europe is composed primarily of two groups , the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century , while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the Balkans since at least the 1st century BC.

Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust and emigration including Aliyah , as well as emigration to America in the 20th century. In modern times, significant secularization since the 20th century, notably in laicist France , Estonia and Czech Republic. The foundation of the OSCE following the s Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the s and s.

From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.

Religion and Secularism - FPRI's 2015 Middle East History Institute

Pan and Pfeil distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one [a] sovereign state geographically situated in Europe. Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority. Font size reflects population size groups smaller than 2 million not to scale Groups not shown due to lack of geographic concentration: Romani 3.

North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 20 September For other uses, see European disambiguation. This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Demographics of Europe. Further information: Languages of Europe. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: History of Europe. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Further information: Scythians , Huns , Turkic expansion , and Islamic conquests. Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of Europe. Main article: Immigration to Europe. Further information: History of Western civilization. Main articles: Culture of Europe and Western culture. Main articles: Religion in Europe and Christendom.

Main article: Pan-European identity. Ethnic groups in Europe. Also to note is that Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin French and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch.

Therefore, exact numbers are not possible. In the census of Northern Ireland , White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms. Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved August 14, Yiddish at Ethnologue 18th ed. PLOS Genetics. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy.

In the s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories.

The Chaldeans: Politics and Identity in Iraq and the American Diaspora

In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina. Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise. To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict.

This strengthened the political stance promoting ethnic identities. This caused intense and divided political leadership within Yugoslavia. In the s Yugoslavia began to break into fragments. Conflict in the disputed territories was stimulated by the rise in mass nationalism and inter-ethnic hostilities. This combined with escalating violence from ethnic Albanians and Serbs within Kosovo intensified economic conditions. The ongoing conflict in Kosovo was propagandized by Communist Serbian Slobodan Milosevic to further increase Serb nationalism.

As mentioned, this nationalism did give rise to powerful emotions which grew the force of Serbian nationalism through highly nationalist demonstrations in Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Within Slovenia, fear was mounting because Milosevic was using the militia to suppress a in Kosovo, what would he do to Slovenia. In fall of tensions came to a head and Slovenia asserted its political and economic independence from Yugoslavia and seceded. In January , there was a total break with Serbia at the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, an institution conceived by Milosevic to strengthen unity and became the backdrop for the fall of communism within Yugoslavia.

In August , a warning to the region was issued when ethnically divided groups attempted to alter the government structure. The republic borders established by the Communist regime in the postwar period were extremely vulnerable to challenges from ethnic communities. Ethnic communities arose because they did not share the identity with everyone within the new post-Communist borders.

The same disputes were erupting that were in place prior to Milosevic and were compounded by actions from his regime. Also within the territory the Croats and the Serbs were in direct competition for control of government. Elections were held and increased potential conflicts between Serb and Croat nationalism.

Serbia wanted to be separate and decide its own future based on its own ethnic composition. But this would then give Kosovo encouragement to become independent from Serbia. Albanians in Kosovo were already independent from Kosovo. Serbia didn't want to let Kosovo become independent.

Muslims nationalists wanted their own territory but it would require a redrawing of the map, and would threaten neighboring territories. When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism. Nationalism again gave rise to powerful emotions which evoked in some extreme cases, a willingness to die for what you believe in, a fight for the survival of the group. In the six years following the collapse , people died in the Bosnian war. Arab nationalism began to decline in the 21st century leading to localized nationalism, culminating in a series of revolts against authoritarian regimes between and , known as the Arab Spring.

Following these revolts, which mostly failed to improve conditions in the affected nations, Arab nationalism and even most local nationalistic movements declined dramatically. The rise of globalism in the late 20th century led to a rise in nationalism and populism in Europe and North America. This trend was further fueled by increased terrorism in the West the September 11 attacks in the U. In Russia, exploitation of nationalist sentiments allowed Vladimir Putin to consolidate power.

In India, Hindu nationalism has gained ground due to the rise of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Prime Minister Narendra Modi 's closely affiliated Bharatiya Janata Party , emphasizing Hinduism as a guiding principle of the country as opposed to the secular stance taken by India's founders. Hindu Nationalists patronize Hindutva and the members of organization have been involved with several violent crimes against religious minorities of India as well as lower caste Hindus [99] Militant Buddhist nationalism is on the rise in Myanmar , Thailand and Sri Lanka.

A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom was held on 18 September The proposal was defeated, with In a referendum , the British populace voted to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union the so-called Brexit. The result had been largely unexpected and was seen as a victory of populism. As the promise of continued EU membership was a core feature of the pro-unionist campaign during the Scottish referendum, the months since the EU Referendum vote have seen renewed calls for a second referendum on Scottish independence.

The U. Trump's slogans " Make America Great Again " and " America First " exemplified his campaign's repudiation of globalism and its staunchly nationalistic outlook. His unexpected victory in the election was seen as part of the same trend that had brought about the Brexit vote. Ted Cruz who was once an adversary. In Japan , nationalist influences in the government developed over the course of the early 21 century, thanks in large part to the Nippon Kaigi organization. The new movement has advocated re-establishing Japan as a military power and revising historical narratives to support the notion of a moral and strong Japan.

In , Rodrigo Duterte became president of the Philippines running a distinctly nationalist campaign. Contrary to the policies of his recent predecessors, he distanced the country from the Philippines' former ruler, the United States, and sought closer ties with China as well as Russia.


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Since , Catalan nationalists have led a renewed Catalan independence movement and declared Catalonia's independence. The movement has been opposed by Spanish nationalists. Many political scientists have theorized about the foundations of the modern nation-state and the concept of sovereignty. The concept of nationalism in political science draws from these theoretical foundations. Philosophers like Machiavelli , Locke , Hobbes , and Rousseau conceptualized the state as the result of a " social contract " between rulers and individuals. Many scholars have noted the relationship between state-building, war, and nationalism.

Many scholars believe that the development of nationalism in Europe and subsequently the modern nation-state was due to the threat of war. Jeffrey Herbst argues that the lack of external threats to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, post-independence, is linked to weak state nationalism and state capacity. The sociological or modernist interpretation of nationalism and nation-building argues that nationalism arises and flourishes in modern societies that have an industrial economy capable of self-sustainability, a central supreme authority capable of maintaining authority and unity, and a centralized language understood by a community of people.

They lack a modern self-sustainable economy, have divided authorities, and use multiple languages resulting in many groups being unable to communicate with each other. Prominent theorists who developed the modernist interpretation of nations and nationalism include: Carlton J. Henry Maine in his analysis of the historical changes and development of human societies noted the key distinction between traditional societies defined as "status" societies based on family association and functionally diffuse roles for individuals; and modern societies defined as "contract" societies where social relations are determined by rational contracts pursued by individuals to advance their interests.

Maine saw the development of societies as moving away from traditional status societies to modern contract societies. While he recognized the advantages of modern societies he also criticized them for their cold and impersonal nature that caused alienation while praising the intimacy of traditional communities. Durkheim identified organic solidarity-based societies as modern societies where there exists a division of labour based on social differentiation that causes alienation. Durkheim claimed that social integration in traditional society required authoritarian culture involving acceptance of a social order.

Durkheim claimed that modern society bases integration on the mutual benefits of the division of labour, but noted that the impersonal character of modern urban life caused alienation and feelings of anomie. Max Weber claimed the change that developed modern society and nations is the result of the rise of a charismatic leader to power in a society who creates a new tradition or a rational-legal system that establishes the supreme authority of the state.

Weber's conception of charismatic authority has been noted as the basis of many nationalist governments. Another approach emerging from biology and psychology looks at long-term evolutionary forces that might lead to nationalism. The primordialist perspective is based upon evolutionary theory. This approach has been popular with the general public but is typically rejected by experts. Laland and Brown report that "the vast majority of professional academics in the social sciences not only The evolutionary theory of nationalism perceives nationalism to be the result of the evolution of human beings into identifying with groups, such as ethnic groups, or other groups that form the foundation of a nation.

The primordialist evolutionary views of nationalism often reference the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin as well as Social Darwinist views of the late nineteenth century. Approached through the primordialist perspective, the example of seeing the mobilization of a foreign military force on the nation's borders may provoke members of a national group to unify and mobilize themselves in response. Critics argue that primordial models relying on evolutionary psychology are based not on historical evidence but on assumptions of unobserved changes over thousands of years and assume stable genetic composition of the population living in a specific area, and are incapable of handling the contingencies that characterize every known historical process.

Robert Hislope argues:. English Historian G. Gooch in argued that "While patriotism is as old as human association and has gradually widened its sphere from the clan and the tribe to the city and the state, nationalism as an operative principle and an articulate creed only made its appearance among the more complicated intellectual processes of the modern world. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels declared in the Communist Manifesto that "the working men have no country". Vladimir Lenin supported the concept of self-determination. Joseph Stalin 's Marxism and the National Question declares that "a nation is not a racial or tribal , but a historically constituted community of people;" "a nation is not a casual or ephemeral conglomeration , but a stable community of people"; "a nation is formed only as a result of lengthy and systematic intercourse , as a result of people living together generation after generation"; and, in its entirety: "a nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, and psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

However, with Stalin at the helm in it was under attack. Historians, sociologists, and anthropologists have debated different types of nationalism since at least the s. This distinction was popularized in the s by Hans Kohn who described "civic" nationalism as "Western" and more democratic while depicting "ethnic" nationalism as "Eastern" and undemocratic. Civic nationalism defines the nation as an association of people who identify themselves as belonging to the nation, who have equal and shared political rights, and allegiance to similar political procedures.

This civic concept of nationalism is exemplified by Ernest Renan in his lecture in " What is a Nation? Civic nationalism is normally associated with liberal nationalism , although the two are distinct, and did not always coincide. On the one hand, until the late 19th and early 20th century adherents to anti-Enlightenment movements such as French Legitimism or Spanish Carlism often rejected the liberal, national unitary state, yet identified themselves not with an ethnic nation but with a non-national dynasty and regional feudal privileges.

Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East

Xenophobic movements in long-established Western European states indeed often took a 'civic national' form, rejecting a given group's ability to assimilate with the nation due to its belonging to a cross-border community Irish Catholics in Britain, Ashkenazic Jews in France. On the other hand, while subnational separatist movements were commonly associated with ethnic nationalism, this was not always so, and such nationalists as the Corsican Republic , United Irishmen , Breton Federalist League or Catalan Republican Party could combine a rejection of the unitary civic-national state with a belief in liberal universalism.

Liberal nationalism is kind of non- xenophobic nationalism that is claimed to be compatible with liberal values of freedom , tolerance , equality , and individual rights. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity to lead meaningful, autonomous lives, [] [] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity to function properly. Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is usually contrasted with ethnic nationalism.

Since individuals resident within different parts of the state territory might have little obvious common ground, civic nationalism developed as a way for rulers to both explain a contemporary reason for such heterogeneity and to provide a common purpose Ernest Renan 's classic description in What is a Nation?


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  • Renan argued that factors such as ethnicity, language, religion, economics, geography, ruling dynasty and historic military deeds were important but not sufficient. Needed was a spiritual soul that allowed as a "daily referendum" among the people. German philosopher Monika Kirloskar-Steinbach does not think liberalism and nationalism are compatible, but she points out there are many liberals who think they are.

    She states:. It was facilitated when French Emperor Napoleon seized control of Spain and Portugal, breaking the chain of control from the Spanish and Portuguese kings to the local governors. Allegiance to the Napoleonic states was rejected, and increasingly the creoles demanded independence. They achieved it after civil wars — Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the "nation" is defined in terms of ethnicity.

    However, it is different from a purely cultural definition of "the nation," which allows people to become members of a nation by cultural assimilation ; and from a purely linguistic definition, according to which "the nation" consists of all speakers of a specific language. Whereas nationalism in and of itself does not imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity or country over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric supremacy or protectionism.

    The humiliation of being a second-class citizen led regional minorities in multiethnic states, such as Great Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman Empire, to define nationalism in terms of loyalty to their minority culture, especially language and religion. Forced assimilation was anathema. For the politically dominant cultural group, assimilation was necessary to minimize disloyalty and treason and therefore became a major component of nationalism. A second factor for the politically dominant group was competition with neighboring states—nationalism involved a rivalry, especially in terms of military prowess and economic strength.

    Economic nationalism , or economic patriotism , refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation , even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.

    Religious nationalism is the relationship of nationalism to a particular religious belief, dogma, or affiliation where a shared religion can be seen to contribute to a sense of national unity, a common bond among the citizens of the nation. Left-wing nationalism occasionally known as socialist nationalism, not to be confused with national socialism [] refers to any political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism.

    Many nationalist movements are dedicated to national liberation , in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors. Anti-revisionist Marxist—Leninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin's early work Marxism and the National Question and his socialism in one country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions. Some nationalists exclude certain groups.

    Some nationalists, defining the national community in ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historic, or religious terms or a combination of these , may then seek to deem certain minorities as not truly being a part of the 'national community' as they define it. Sometimes a mythic homeland is more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation.

    Territorial nationalists assume that all inhabitants of a particular nation owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption. Citizenship is idealized by territorial nationalists. A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values, codes and traditions of the population. There are different types of nationalism including Risorgimento nationalism and Integral nationalism. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany , according to Alter and Brown, were examples of integral nationalism.

    Some of the qualities that characterize integral nationalism are anti-individualism , statism , radical extremism, and aggressive-expansionist militarism. The term Integral Nationalism often overlaps with fascism, although many natural points of disagreement exist. Integral nationalism arises in countries where a strong military ethos has become entrenched through the independence struggle, when, once independence is achieved, it is believed that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state.

    Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism. Pan-nationalism is unique in that it covers a large area span. Pan-nationalism focuses more on "clusters" of ethnic groups. Pan-Slavism is one example of Pan-nationalism. The goal is to unite all Slavic people into one country. They did succeed by uniting several south Slavic people into Yugoslavia in This form of nationalism came about during the decolonization of the post war periods.

    It was a reaction mainly in Africa and Asia against being subdued by foreign powers. It also appeared in the non-Russian territories of the Tsarist empire and later, the USSR, where Ukrainianists and Islamic Marxists condemned Russian Bolshevik rule in their territories as a renewed Russian imperialism. This form of nationalism took many guises, including the peaceful passive resistance movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian subcontinent.

    Benedict Anderson argued that anti-colonial nationalism is grounded in the experience of literate and bilingual indigenous intellectuals fluent in the language of the imperial power, schooled in its "national" history, and staffing the colonial administrative cadres up to but not including its highest levels. Post-colonial national governments have been essentially indigenous forms of the previous imperial administration. Racial nationalism is an ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity. Racial nationalism seeks to preserve a given race through policies such as banning race mixing and the immigration of other races.

    Specific examples are black nationalism and white nationalism. Sport spectacles like football's World Cup command worldwide audiences as nations battle for supremacy and the fans invest intense support for their national team. Increasingly people have tied their loyalties and even their cultural identity to national teams. The French Empire was not far behind the British in the use of sports to strengthen colonial solidarity with France.

    Colonial officials promoted and subsidized gymnastics, table games, and dance and helped football spread to French colonies. Feminist critique interprets nationalism as a mechanism through which sexual control and repression are justified and legitimised, often by a dominant masculine power. The gendering of nationalism through socially constructed notions of masculinity and femininity not only shapes what masculine and feminine participation in the building of that nation will look like, but also how the nation will be imagined by nationalists.


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    • History, political ideologies, and religions place most nations along a continuum of muscular nationalism. Nations and gender systems are mutually supportive constructions : the nation fulfils the masculine ideals of comradeship and brotherhood. Critics of nationalism have argued that it is often unclear what constitutes a "nation", or whether a nation is a legitimate unit of political rule. Nationalists hold that the boundaries of a nation and a state should coincide with one another, thus nationalism tends to oppose multiculturalism.

      Philosopher A. Grayling describes nations as artificial constructs, "their boundaries drawn in the blood of past wars". He argues that "there is no country on earth which is not home to more than one different but usually coexisting culture. Cultural heritage is not the same thing as national identity". Nationalism is inherently divisive because it highlights perceived differences between people, emphasizing an individual's identification with their own nation. The idea is also potentially oppressive because it submerges individual identity within a national whole, and gives elites or political leaders potential opportunities to manipulate or control the masses.

      The classic nationalist movements of the 19th century rejected the very existence of the multi-ethnic empires in Europe. Even in that early stage, however, there was an ideological critique of nationalism. That has developed into several forms of Internationalism and anti-nationalism.

      The Islamic revival of the 20th century also produced an Islamist critique of the nation-state. In his classic essay on the topic George Orwell distinguishes nationalism from patriotism, which he defines as devotion to a particular place. Nationalism, more abstractly, is "power-hunger tempered by self-deception. There are, for example, Trotskyists who have become simply enemies of the U. When one grasps the implications of this, the nature of what I mean by nationalism becomes a good deal clearer.

      A nationalist is one who thinks solely, or mainly, in terms of competitive prestige. He may be a positive or a negative nationalist—that is, he may use his mental energy either in boosting or in denigrating—but at any rate his thoughts always turn on victories, defeats, triumphs and humiliations. He sees history, especially contemporary history, as the endless rise and decline of great power units and every event that happens seems to him a demonstration that his own side is on the upgrade and some hated rival is on the downgrade. But finally, it is important not to confuse nationalism with mere worship of success.

      The nationalist does not go on the principle of simply ganging up with the strongest side. On the contrary, having picked his side, he persuades himself that it is the strongest and is able to stick to his belief even when the facts are overwhelmingly against him. In the liberal political tradition there was mostly a negative attitude toward nationalism as a dangerous force and a cause of conflict and war between nation-states. The historian Lord Acton put the case against "nationalism as insanity" in He argued that nationalism suppresses minorities, it places country above moral principles and especially it creates a dangerous individual attachment to the state.

      However Acton opposed democracy and was trying to defend the pope from Italian nationalism. The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism , and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism. National symbols and patriotic assertiveness are in some countries discredited by their historical link with past wars, especially in Germany.

      British pacifist Bertrand Russell criticizes nationalism for diminishing the individual's capacity to judge his or her fatherland's foreign policy. It is the measles of mankind". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Patriotism. This article is about the ideology.

      For other uses, see Nationalist disambiguation. It is not to be confused with National unity government or Industrial unionism. Political ideology. Core values. Autonomy National identity Self-determination Solidarity. List of nationalist organizations. Related concepts. Anationalism Anti-nationalism Diaspora politics Gender and nationalism Historiography and nationalism Internationalism Irredentism Revanchism Seasonal or cultural festival. Main article: De jure belli ac pacis.

      Main article: International relations of the Great Powers — Further information: Revanchism and French—German enmity. Main article: Russian nationalism. Main article: Latin American Wars of Independence. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January

      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study
      Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study

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