Earth System Processes and Disaster Management


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About this book

They already are, and are becoming more and more interconnected, thus resulting in significant consequences on a worldwide scale. Space research and technology is instrumental in delivering a substantial contribution towards tackling these global challenges. Its goal is to advance science in the exploration of the Earth and the Solar System in addition to protecting the environment. DLR is capable of achieving this objective by covering the entire chain of activities - from fundamental research to the development of products and services for tomorrow. It offers assistance by providing scientific findings, information and knowledge that is both useful and usable for the private and public sector.

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction is a voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role of reducing disaster risk, but that the responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders also from local government and the private sector.

The Sendai Framework therefore calls for science and technology-based disaster risk reduction and promotes multi-stakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of the agreement. The participants are committed to fostering the use of space-based technologies and applications and also Earth observation in the context of the Sendai Framework.

Earth Systems in 2 Minutes

It is of great importance to transfer scientific evidence and technological know-how if the operational requirements and realities of different countries are to be met. One of the priorities of carrying out space research, and working on further developing technology should be to make it usable, useful and feasible, also in developing countries.

Many techniques, procedures and tools have already been developed and are currently being suggested for use. Both society and the economy largely benefit from these developments. At the same time, many potential users and countries are either not aware, feature limited capacity, or have difficulty evaluating which application best fits their purpose. Recent progress made in space research and development has been impressive.

Space technology applications in various areas of current global concern have been created and made available.


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DLR has contributed to the advancements with several Earth observation missions, e. In addition, modern innovative and improved systems have been introduced which can deliver highly relevant output at an unprecedented spatial resolution, as in the case of the global digital elevation model, flood mapping and the global urban footprint.

DLR is now working on new missions, for example the planned Tandem-L radar satellite constellation. The satellite design includes capturing data using high resolution optical processes including infrared detection and hyperspectral sensory methods to cover the whole surface of the Earth within a matter of days. Future projects in the field of Earth observation are dedicated to global observations of the Earth featuring high temporal and spatial resolution and with the aim of not only delivering geo-information to better understand earth system processes, but also to support the monitoring and evaluation requirements of international conventions like the Paris Agreement and the Sendai Framework.

DLR is working on innovative and precise satellite communication and navigation systems. These will contribute to the reliable transmission of sensor data e.


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Civil satellite-based positioning and navigation is essential for location-based data gathering and services. The GP-STAR brochure at hand is the first step in gathering information on the availability of applications and services and linking them to specific Sendai Framework requirements. This global stock-take needs to continue, but the current compilation has already proven to be valuable in fostering the use of space-based technology and applications and Earth observation within the context of the Sendai Framework.

Teamed with the feedback and requirements of the users, it will give rise to new research and development aspects and further advancements can be made. We, at DLR, are definitely looking forward to this exchange of ideas. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction is people-centred, focuses on managing risks rather than managing disasters, and covers both natural and man-made hazards.

The goal of the Sendai Framework is to reduce disaster losses through preventing the creation of new risk and reducing existing levels of disaster risk. The focus of implementation is on measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disasters, and that increase preparedness for response and recovery, and so strengthen resilience.

Such access is key to developing an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions including exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be leveraged for risk assessments, and improved planning and preparedness. The use of space-based technologies and earth observation are essential elements in developing evidence-informed national and local disaster risk reduction strategies which are due to be in place by , a key target and deadline for implementation of the Sendai Framework. Satellite meteorology is important to understand the earth's atmosphere and oceans and for weather forecasting.

Satellite telecommunication contributes to reliable transmission of sensor data to early warning centers, dissemination of warning messages as well as supporting the functioning of communication infrastructure in crisis regions. There is a welcome trend towards free and open access to satellite data and growing capacity to extract knowledge and information useful for disaster risk reduction. However, many countries do not benefit yet to the extent possible. GP-STAR aims to provide advice and conceptual guidance to governments and organizations, and today comprises thirty-three partners representing national, regional and international organizations.

The present brochure and compilation of fact sheets provides guidance on the use of space-based technology applications to support Sendai Framework implementation. I would like to acknowledge the contribution of GP-STAR and would like to encourage all partners and relevant actors to actively contribute to this well-targeted initiative which is a good example of the kind of international cooperation that the Sendai Framework seeks to encourage.

Due to its voluntary nature, it is expected that the members will contribute with in-kind resources and may affiliate their programs and activities which are relevant to the GP-STAR. Space-based technology applications and Earth Observation have become an essential element in many national and local disaster risk reduction strategies.

Satellite meteorology is important to understand Earth's atmosphere and oceans and for weather forecasting.

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Earth System Processes and Disaster Management | Rajiv Sinha | Springer

Satellite telecommunication contributes to reliable transmission of sensor data e. Earth Observation contributes to hazard onset detection, monitoring as well as to assessing exposure and vulnerability to contribute to risk-informed decision making.

Natural disasters are not so ‘natural’

Additionally Space technology applications find its relevance also in all other priorities for action and contribute to the expected outcome, goal and the global targets of the Sendai Framework. An increasing tendency of free and open access to satellite data and growing capacities and availability of value-adding procedures to extract knowledge and information, useful for disaster risk reduction, can be recognized.

The constellations of satellite Earth Observation platforms collect imagery with different detail, coverage and repeated cycles. In fact, satellite imagery, in combination with in situ data, is used to derive measure of the physical variables of the atmospheric, ocean and the terrestrial hazardous processes at the spatial and temporal scale these processes occur.

Most Earth Observation missions have a global coverage, provide images at different time interval that can be used for crisis management purposes and provide a spatial detail for analysing physical and societal process. Earth Observation is also used to map urban areas and human settlements that are impacted by natural, technological and biological hazards and that describe the human presence on the planet and when in combination with physical variables their interaction with the environment.

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Earth Observation is particularly well suited to measure natural hazard impact and thus to monitor progress towards the priorities and the targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Satellite imagery are used to quantify the hazards, the exposure, vulnerability, damages and losses and used to quantify disaster risk, disaster impact and other crisis management processes. Satellite imagery area also used to understand the underlying factors of disaster risks including environmental degradation, deforestation and rapid urbanization in hazard hotspot areas.

The process was derived from actual practices, suggestions and needs of different user groups involved in disaster management. Disaster monitoring requires information system infrastructure that would enable communication and integrate various distributed information sources and services.

Geography & Geology

The result gives ideas for establishing an operative disaster management process involving local authorities, disaster analysts and the public. The process integrates earth observation data analysis with modern ICTs and improves the methods of early warning. Louhisuo, M. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Bibliographic Information

Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract Purpose — This paper aims to present disaster information and a monitoring system in order to utilize earth observation data in the operative process of early warning, mitigation and management of natural disasters.

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Earth System Processes and Disaster Management Earth System Processes and Disaster Management
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Earth System Processes and Disaster Management

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