Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries


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This region is a net importer of meat, as local production is insufficient to meet demand, particularly that created by the tourist industry Vokaty and Torres The growth in livestock production in the last two decades reflects the regional trend of consumers increasingly moving away from the consumption of beef toward poultry, pork, eggs, and dairy products FAO , which is in line with global consumption trends.

The exception is the consumption of mutton and goat that still prevails and continues to grow in the region, and which is mostly consumed by the local population rather than by visiting tourists. Generally, there is a preference for goat meat rather than mutton by Caribbean nationals Vokaty and Torres Most likely, the consumption of meat and food animal products in the region will follow global projections for of a moderate increase in meat consumption, based mainly on increased consumption of pork and especially poultry, while the consumption of eggs and milk are expected to continue to increase and decrease, respectively at least in developed countries Kearny Pathogens associated with the majority of outbreaks in the USA and Europe also rank among the most common causes of outbreaks and FBD cases in the Caribbean, namely, those associated with AGE and diarrhea as seen in a set of studies aimed at estimating the burden of illness BOI in seven Caribbean countries i.

In Trinidad and Tobago in and , Lakhan et al.

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Foodborne Diseases : Jan Mei Soon :

In Dominica Ahmed et al. Giardia was also reported to be the prevalent etiologic agent in Guyana; however, no data was reported regarding bacterial agents due to a lack of laboratory capacity Persuad et al. In St. Lucia and Grenada Gabriel et al. In Barbados, norovirus led the foodborne pathogens causing AGE-related illness, followed by Salmonella and Campylobacter. In Jamaica, the burden of illness study revealed that there was no determination of pathogen specific causes of AGE Fletcher et al.

In addition to these retrospective, cross-sectional studies, other reports on the frequency of enteropathogens in human fecal and rectal specimens indicate Shigella , Salmonella , and enteropathogenic E. Salmonella and Shigella were reported from more than half of the countries. Campylobacter and ciguatera were reported from three to six countries and norovirus from five to seven countries.

E. Coli & Salmonella Outbreaks Changed Food Production, But How Safe Are We? - Retro Report

A wider range of pathogens were reported from onward. Enteritidis was the most commonly isolated in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Suriname. Typhimurium was dominant in Barbados and Mississippi in Bermuda Indar et al. Specific attribution studies in the Caribbean region are scarce. Indar-Harrinauth et al. Campylobacter illness is mainly associated with food sources 0.

Previously, in an attempt to overcome the deficiency of data, Pires et al. Authors reviewed bacterial outbreaks reported by 20 countries and concluded that in general, the most important sources of bacterial disease were meat and dairy products, water, and vegetables in the s, whereas eggs, vegetables, grains, and beans were the most important sources in the s.

The most frequently reported pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella spp. The associated fluctuations observed for each pathogen between decades and countries were linked to changes in the control of zoonotic diseases, changes in food consumption habits, changes in public health focus, and changes in availability of data regarding different pathogens.

The authors also identified many data gaps in the region and noted that some of the data does not represent the region totally but only some of the countries, considering the great variability in terms of reporting, namely, of the most frequently described pathogens.

For example, FBD outbreak data from only two of the Caribbean countries, Bahamas and Barbados, were considered in the present overview; thus, the data can only be seen as an indicator of the reality in the Caribbean, based on geographical, cultural, and food consumption similarities. Apart from the substantial economic burden on the population and health care system imposed by FBD, the associated economic impact for nations that depend on tourism for financial support is also a reason of concern.

Tourism is very important to the Caribbean economies, contributing about a third of the regional GDP. The region regularly and, in recent years, increasingly receives large numbers of passengers from cruise ships and also large numbers of visitors staying in hotels and resorts many of them with all inclusive meal plans. This comes even after the region attracted a record setting The tourism industry is known to be vulnerable to health, safety, security, and environmental challenges, and therefore, FBD may impact negatively on the image and sustainability of this industry with potential visitors becoming reluctant to travel to regions where there is a known or perceived risk of becoming infected with FBD Paredes et al.

In the Caribbean, FBD outbreaks are frequently registered by the health authorities and many are known to involve tourists and to be associated with high economic losses to the tourism operators Indar Additionally, there are some studies concerning the epidemiology of travel-related pathogens indicating that traveling to the Caribbean region and also to other regions of the world may represent a high risk for acquiring foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter , Salmonella , and Shigella in US travelers to the Caribbean Kendall et al. More recently, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean was assessed Gray et al.

This study demonstrates that travelers are capable of spreading these particular Shigella strains globally, expanding the risk to a broader level. This is a finding that can be extrapolated to other travel-related pathogens. The prevalence of Salmonella spp.

Twelve of these studies were conducted in Trinidad, one in Barbados and one in Trinidad, Grenada, and St. Lucia simultaneously. Prevalence of this bacteria in fecal samples of live animals livestock and ducks was low, with values of 2. In layer farms and eggs, two studies indicated prevalences ranging from 3. The only study conducted on milk detected Salmonella in 1. In ready-to-eat meat products, Salmonella was present in black pudding varying from 3. In ready-to-eat meat-processing plants, Salmonella was detected only in pre-cooked meat in one of the studies Syne et al.

Although Salmonella enteritidis showed predominance in the human isolates in Trinidad and Tobago Indar et al. Publications on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. A study conducted in feces and rectal swabs from cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats indicated the overall prevalence of Campylobacter to be Low-prevalence figures were detected in sheep feces 4. Regarding meat, Workman et al. Studies also indicate a general higher frequency of Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni. Regarding the epidemiology of C.

Previous to this, Workman et al. Also, Miller et al. Investigations on Campylobacter spp. The presence of E. Addressing the presence of E. In the same country, verotoxigenic E. Investigations of ready-to-eat meat products in Trinidad indicated E. Very few of these studies tested E. Other bacteria that are mentioned in the searched literature include Listeria spp. These two bacteria were also detected in bulk milk samples, 1. Listeria spp. Finally, regarding S.

Regarding ready-to-eat meat products, S. Two additional studies conducted in Trinidad in and reveal the presence of S. Enterotoxinogenic strains were determined in only two of the above mentioned studies, with Overall, bacteria prevalence studies in food-producing animals and food products of animal origin mentioned in this review have limited significance. Another limitation relates to the diverse sampling plans and methodological steps followed in the detection and identification of the microorganisms in these studies, which make it difficult to compare and interpret the findings.

Many foods of both animal and plant origin can be contaminated by disease-producing microorganisms at one or more stages of food production, beginning on the farm and ending in the home. While livestock and other domestic animal sources are often implicated, the ultimate sources of contaminants can extend back to infected feral or wild animals Adesiyun et al. Several wildlife species living in the Caribbean are recognized as carriers and shedders of the pathogens addressed in this overview.

Roach et al. Kitts and Nevis, an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica was registered in captive green monkeys Soto et al. Mongoose—small Asian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and small Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus —are recognized as carriers and shedders of Salmonella spp. Wild rats Rattus spp.

Other animals species found in the Caribbean and seen as carriers of FBD that include the blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi , commonly used as a food item in the Caribbean region that has been shown to harbor E. Finally, cane toads Bufo marinus were found with high levels of Salmonella and harboring serovars that are emerging as causes of human disease in the western hemisphere Drake et al.

In spite of this compilation of possible wild animal contamination sources, no study was found attempting to correlate rates of infection in wild animals and livestock animals in the region. Only a small number of studies were found correlating rates of infection in live animals and food contamination Adesiyun et al. Effective surveillance of animal diseases is in fact a priority for the World Organization of Animal Health OIE and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO Corning , and tools are available nowadays to prioritize zoonoses using a One Health perspective in a way to minimize fiscal and personal limitations as well as the absence of comprehensive prevalence data.

These can be used by human and animal health agencies to coordinate across sectors in a more effective response to zoonotic diseases Rist et al. In the Caribbean, interactions between medical, wildlife, and veterinary professionals are currently considered very limited. The low internal capacity of Caribbean governments, their limited resources, and the high burden of infectious human and animal disease across the Caribbean region are recognized and point toward the relevance of pursuing a holistic One Health approach, with interdisciplinary engagement on a regional scale ACP To overcome these limitations, national and regional organizations such as the Caribbean Animal Health Network CaribVET are increasingly committed to implementing or improving established surveillance systems according to a One Health approach.

This result was correlated with the influence of environmental characteristics of the Caribbean tropical area and the growing importance of tourism in the islands. Regarding this last aspect, response surveillance systems are also identified and under preparation for hotels and cruise ships to address health, safety, and environmental issues that pose serious threats to the sustainability of tourism in the region Indar There are also environmental health initiatives with the Caribbean EcoHealth Program CEHP being carried out to enhance integrated research and capacity development Forde et al.

Contributing to an overall human-animal health surveillance strategy, starting at a regional level and in an animal health research perspective, several approaches could be undertaken by each country to gather relevant information to be used in targeting actions in order to improve food safety. Addressing food of animal origin under a farm to the fork approach research strategy, we suggest data collection on the following points an initial prioritization of zoonoses could be considered :.

Systematic examination of potential hazards that exist in each stage of the meat and other food animal products milk, eggs chain and to determine their epidemiological significance;. Evaluate and manage hygiene and sanitary control systems on farms and at food processing sites;. The outcomes of these research studies could then be used to develop interventions aimed at protecting food animals from infections and reduce dissemination of foodborne hazards.

Livestock is very important economic and cultural sectors in the Caribbean. Future projections indicate changes in the dietary habits of local populations, a considerable increase in meat consumption and rising demand for other animal products such as eggs. Presently, studies limited to a few countries in the Caribbean indicate an apparent high prevalence of Campylobacter and E.

Further research is needed to identify which animals and foodstuffs are the main sources of infections. FBDs are a substantial concern in the region, and Salmonella spp. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are needed to establish possible correlations between human and animal diseases that could lead to the establishment of preventive measures. From the animal health regional perspective, further research measures could contribute with relevant data to establish or improve existent integrated surveillance systems to assure the safety of food of animal origin.

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Trop Anim Health Prod. Published online May Box , Basseterre, St. Andre M. Kitts and Nevis Find articles by Andre M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Kitts and Nevis. Corresponding author. Received Mar 31; Accepted May 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Foodborne diseases FBDs are a serious global health problem.

Material and methods A literature search was conducted on the available documentation published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish regarding bacterial foodborne zoonoses and food safety in the Caribbean Region from to Results and discussion Food-producing animals and meat production in the Caribbean region In the Caribbean, livestock production varies in importance across the region depending on environment and culture. Open in a separate window.

Bacteria associated with FBD in the Caribbean Pathogens associated with the majority of outbreaks in the USA and Europe also rank among the most common causes of outbreaks and FBD cases in the Caribbean, namely, those associated with AGE and diarrhea as seen in a set of studies aimed at estimating the burden of illness BOI in seven Caribbean countries i.

The importance of FBD in the Caribbean region Apart from the substantial economic burden on the population and health care system imposed by FBD, the associated economic impact for nations that depend on tourism for financial support is also a reason of concern. Bacteria prevalence studies in food-producing animals and food products of animal origin in the Caribbean Salmonella spp. Negative for Yersinia enterocolitica Non-diarrhoeic animals Negative for Yersinia Adesiyun et al. Adesiyun et al. Lucia Layer farms, hatcheries, ports of entry, kitchens of hotels Cloacal swabs; environmental swabs of deep litters, freshly laid eggs, and poultry feeds 35 farms total, cloacal swabs of layers, environmental swabs, and feed total Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, St.

Lucia, pooled samples of freshly laid eggs, 24 eggs Trinidad, 12 72 eggs from Grenada, and 23 eggs from St. Agona Bulk milk samples L. Agona 8 S. Derby 6 S. Ohio 6 S. Agona 4 S. Derby 3 S. Albany 2 S. Mbandaka 1 Staphylococcus aureus —58 Campylobacter spp. Table 4 Investigations on Campylobacter spp. Study date Study location Sampling site Species, sample type and size Campylobacter spp. Adesiyun and Krishnan Trinidad Meat-processing plantassociated with a previous recall of three processed meat products chicken franks, spice ham, and turkey ham ready-to eat as a result of contamination by L.

On farms, fresh feces were collected from pigs, cows, and sheep Swabs from dogs and cats from the local Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals RSPCA , a private veterinary clinic, and various households. Samples from wild birds collected at a recreational shooting swamp. The wild birds tested included both migratory and resident birds; mongooses were trapped for an independent study being carried out by the Centere for Resource Management and Environmental Studies of the University of the West Indies.

UPTC strains were harbored exclusively by several wild birds Workman et al. Verotoxigenic E.

Selected Publication:

Sources of animal and food contamination Many foods of both animal and plant origin can be contaminated by disease-producing microorganisms at one or more stages of food production, beginning on the farm and ending in the home. Addressing food of animal origin under a farm to the fork approach research strategy, we suggest data collection on the following points an initial prioritization of zoonoses could be considered : Systematic examination of potential hazards that exist in each stage of the meat and other food animal products milk, eggs chain and to determine their epidemiological significance; Evaluate and manage hygiene and sanitary control systems on farms and at food processing sites; Determine sources of animal and food contamination, including wildlife; Explore food safety practices and perceptions of consumers.

Conclusions Livestock is very important economic and cultural sectors in the Caribbean. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical approval The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data. References ACP, ACP science and technology program.

Bacteriologic quality of some Trinidadian ready-to-consume foods and drinks and possible health risks to consumers. Journal of Food Protection. International Journal of Food Microbiology. Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, Listeria monocytogenes O:4 and thermophilic Campylobacter spp.


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Food Microbiology. Prevalence of Salmonella , Listeria monocytogenes , Campylobacter spp. Some bacterial enteropathogens in wildlife and racing pigeons from Trinidad. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days.

Foodborne Diseases: Case Studies of Outbreaks in the Agri-Food Industries

Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! General introduction: Foodborne disease outbreak - Epidemiology, traceback and environmental investigations. Primary agriculture: Fresh produce e.

Microbiological hazard outbreak in sprouted seeds. Microbiological outbreaks in dairy. Processing: Food safety breakdowns in complex manufacturing industries e. Food service: Foodborne outbreak in food service establishments. Fraud, local and cross-border outbreaks: Fraud and foodborne outbreaks. Case study of international foodborne disease outbreak: How do we manage cross-border outbreak investigations? Sporadic foodborne diseases - Often overlooked and unaccounted for.

How do we manage sporadic incidences? Risk communication - how do we make sure communication during a disease outbreak is relevant, measured and effective? Where do we go from here? Understanding the Science of Food From molecules to mouthfeel. In Stock. Eating Animals. Molecular Gastronomy Exploring the Science of Flavor. The World Atlas of Wine : 8th Edition.

Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries
Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries
Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries
Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries
Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries
Foodborne diseases : case studies of outbreaks in the agri-food industries

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